Overview

FusionAuth supports the following grant types as defined by the OAuth 2.0 framework in RFC 6749, RFC 8628, and OpenID Connect Core.

  • Authorization Code Grant
  • Implicit Grant
  • Password Grant (also referred to as the Resource Owner Credentials Grant)
  • Refresh Token Grant
  • Client Credentials Grant
  • Device Authorization Grant

To begin using the FusionAuth login system, start by configuring your Application for OAuth2.

To begin using the Client Credentials grant, start by configuring Entities.

It is recommended to utilize the Authorization Code Grant unless you have a technical requirement that makes a different grant a better choice. The following outline some example login flows.

You can also learn about OAuth Modes, which are different methods of using OAuth that are higher level than the individual grants.

Configure Application OAuth Settings

Navigate to the Application configuration from the main menu, Applications.

If you have already created a FusionAuth Application for the purpose of your application, you do not need to create another, however you will still need to complete the OAuth configuration. If an application has not yet been created, click Add and name your application accordingly and fill out the OAuth configuration.

In this example you will see we have created a new Application named Pied Piper and have filled out the fields in the OAuth Configuration tab. A FusionAuth application represents an authenticated resource that you will be using with FusionAuth.

Additional OAuth controls can be managed through Tenant Configuration.

Application OAuth Configuration

OAuth Form Fields

Client IdRead only

The unique client identifier as defined by RFC 6749 Section 2.2. This value is read only, it is equal to the unique Id of the Application.

Client secretRead only

The client secret as defined by RFC 6749 Section 2.3-1.

This value may be optionally re-generated by clicking the regenerate button. If this Application is configured to require client authentication, changing the client secret will cause all clients to fail client authentication and they will not be able to complete the OAuth login process. If this Application is not configured to require client authentication, regenerating this secret will not have any external effect.

Client Authenticationavailable since 1.28.0

This selector allows you to set a rule for accessing the Token endpoint.

  • Required - The client_secret parameter must be used. This is the default setting. In most cases you will not want to change this setting.
  • Not required - Use of the client_secret parameter is optional.
  • Not required when using PKCE - Requires the use of the client_secret parameter unless a valid PKCE code_verifier parameter is used. This is useful for scenarios where you have a requirement to make a request to the Token endpoint where you cannot safely secure a client secret such as native mobile applications and single page applications (SPAs) running in a browser. In these scenarios it is recommended you use PKCE.

See the Token endpoint for more information.

PKCEavailable since 1.28.0

This selector allows you to set a rule for Proof Key for Code Exchange (or PKCE) requirements when using the authorization code grant.

  • Required - The code_verifier parameter must be used. If you want to require PKCE for this application, set PKCE to this value.
  • Not required - Use of the code_verifier parameter is optional. This is the default setting.
  • Not required when using client authentication - Requires the use of the code_verifier parameter unless a valid client_secret parameter is used.
Generate refresh tokensavailable since 1.3.0

When enabled, a refresh token will be generated when the offline_access scope has been requested and other required values have been provided.

In order to use the Refresh Token with the Refresh Grant to refresh a token, you must ensure that the Refresh Token grant is enabled. See the Enabled grants parameter.

Debug enabledavailable since 1.25.0

Enable debug to create an event log to assist you in debugging integration errors.

URL validationavailable since 1.43.0

Controls the validation policy for Authorized redirect URLs and Authorized request origin URLs .

The possible values are:

  • Exact match - Only the configured values that do not contain wildcards are considered for validation. Values during OAuth 2.0 workflows must match a configured value exactly.
  • Allow wildcards - Configured values with and without wildcards are considered for validation. Values during OAuth 2.0 workflows can be matched against wildcard patterns or exactly match a configured value.
Authorized redirect URLs

One or more authorized URLs that the OAuth grant workflow may redirect to upon completion.

Available since 1.43.0

Configured URLs containing wildcards are considered during validation when is set to . Wildcards are allowed in the following positions:

  • The left-most subdomain - A full or partial wildcard is allowed in the left-most subdomain. The replacement value cannot contain a ..
  • The port number - A wildcard is allowed in place of the port number. Partial wildcards are not allowed in this position.
  • A path segment - A full or partial wildcard is allowed in any path segment. The replacement value cannot contain a /.
  • A query string value - A wildcard is allowed in place of a query string value. Partial wildcards are not allowed in this position. Wildcards are not allowed in query string names.

See the OAuth 2.0 URL Validation page for more detail.

Authorized request origin URLs

One or more authorized origins that can initiate the OAuth grant to the /oauth2/authorize or /oauth2/token endpoints. Leaving this value empty will allow all origins.

Available since 1.43.0

Configured URLs containing wildcards are considered during validation when is set to . Wildcards are allowed in the following positions:

  • The left-most subdomain - A full or partial wildcard is allowed in the left-most subdomain. The replacement value cannot contain a ..
  • The port number - A wildcard is allowed in place of the port number. Partial wildcards are not allowed in this position.
  • A path segment - A full or partial wildcard is allowed in any path segment. The replacement value cannot contain a /.
  • A query string value - A wildcard is allowed in place of a query string value. Partial wildcards are not allowed in this position. Wildcards are not allowed in query string names.

See the OAuth 2.0 URL Validation page for more detail.

Logout URL

The URL used to perform the 302 redirect as the response from the /oauth2/logout API. If this value is omitted, the global configuration value will be used. See the Logout URL under the OAuth tab of the System Settings.

Logout behaviorrequiredavailable since 1.11.0

The behavior to follow upon call to /oauth2/logout.

Enabled grantsavailable since 1.5.0

The OAuth grants enabled for this Application. When creating a new Application, the Authorization Code and Refresh Token grants will be enabled by default.

Device Verification URLavailable since 1.11.0

The URL to direct the end-user to for the user-interaction portion of the Device Authorization Grant. This field is required if Device is enabled in the OAuth Enabled grants for this Application.

Require registrationavailable since 1.28.0

When enabled the user will be required to be registered, or complete registration before redirecting to the configured callback in the authorization code grant or the implicit grant. This configuration does not affect any other grant, and does not affect the API usage.

Configure Entities

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This feature is only available in paid plans. Please visit our pricing page to learn more.

The Client Credentials grant takes place between two Entities. You can learn more about Entities in the Core Concepts section.

There are two entities which take part in a Client Credentials grant in FusionAuth: the recipient Entity and the target Entity.

Imagine you have a todo API which lets you create, read, update, and delete todos. You also have an email API, which lets you send emails. You can represent these both in FusionAuth as Entities.

When building functionality to allow the todo API to send email reminders, grant permissions on the email API (the target Entity) to the todo API (the recipient Entity). To set up this relationship:

  • Create an API entity type with the following permissions: execute and configure.
  • Create a todo API entity
  • Create an email API entity
  • Grant the todo API execute permissions on the email API

The todo API is the recipient Entity, because it receives the permissions to call the email API. The email API is the target Entity, because it will process the token. The email API is the system to which access is controlled.

The set up happens once and then the todo API can perform the client credentials grant any time it needs to call the email API. It will get a token at the end of a successful grant and can present that to the email API.

You may configure Entities and Grants via the FusionAuth API or the administrative user interface. You can specify the Client Id and Client Secret if desired.

Below is the creation screen for an Entity:

Setting up an Entity

Below is the management screen for an Entity where you’d add or remove Grants:

Adding a Grant to an Entity

Here’s an example of adding a Grant to an Entity via the API:

Example Grant Request

API_KEY=...
TARGET_ENTITY_ID=e13365f1-a270-493e-bd1b-3d239d753d53
RECIPIENT_ENTITY_ID=2934f41f-d277-4a32-b0d5-16e47dad9721

curl \
  -XPOST \
  -H "content-type: application/json" \
  -H "Authorization: $API_KEY"  \
  'https://local.fusionauth.io/api/entity/'$TARGET_ENTITY_ID'/grant' -d'
{
  "grant": {
    "recipientEntityId": "'$RECIPIENT_ENTITY_ID'",
    "permissions" : ["read","write"]
  }
}
'

Next, learn how to perform a Client Credentials Grant.

Example Authorization Code Grant

Notice

Mobile applications require additional security in implementing the Authorization Code Grant Flow due to inability to safely store a client-secret and the potential of the authorization code being intercepted.

For these reasons, it is best practice to implement the Authorization Code Grant Flow with Proof Key for Code Exchange (PKCE, pronounced “pixie”).

Review the Authorization and Token endpoint documentation for additional detail on these necessary request parameters.

Point your application to the authorize endpoint

Now that your FusionAuth application has been configured to use the OAuth provider, you may now point the login for your application to the FusionAuth authorize endpoint which will now handle user authentication.

For the purposes of this example, I will make the assumption that FusionAuth App is running locally at http://localhost:9011, the client_id will be found on the OAuth tab in the application configuration, the redirect_uri will be where you wish FusionAuth to redirect the browser when the authorization step has completed. This value will need to be predefined in the authorized redirect URLs in the OAuth configuration. The response_type will always be code for this grant type. The tenantId will be the unique Id of the tenant this request is scoped for, the tenant’s configured theme will be applied.

Review the Authorization endpoint documentation for more detail.

http://localhost:9011/oauth2/authorize?client_id=06494b74-a796-4723-af44-1bdb96b48875&redirect_uri=https://www.piedpiper.com/login&response_type=code&tenantId=78dda1c8-14d4-4c98-be75-0ccef244297d

Consume the authorization code returned from the authorize request

When the authorize request completes successfully it will respond with a status code of 302 to the location provided by the redirect_uri parameter. The request will contain a code parameter which can be exchanged for an access token. The access token contains the user Id of the authenticated user which can then be used to retrieve the entire user object.

Review the Token endpoint documentation for more detail. The following is an example redirect URI containing the authorization code.

https://www.piedpiper.com/login?code=+WYT3XemV4f81ghHi4V+RyNwvATDaD4FIj0BpfFC4Wzg=&userState=Authenticated

Exchange the authorization code for an access token

The last step to complete the authentication process and retrieve the user’s Id is to exchange the returned authorization code for an access token. The JSON response will contain the user Id of the authenticated user.

If the authorization code grant is being implemented in a Single Page App (SPA), the token request should be made by the application server in order to keep the client secret secure from introspection of the client code.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

POST /oauth2/token HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 436
client_id=3c219e58-ed0e-4b18-ad48-f4f92793ae32
    &code=+WYT3XemV4f81ghHi4V+RyNwvATDaD4FIj0BpfFC4Wzg
    &grant_type=authorization_code
    &redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.piedpiper.com%2Flogin

Example HTTP Response

{
  "access_token" : "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJleHAiOjE0ODUxNDA5ODQsImlhdCI6MTQ4NTEzNzM4NCwiaXNzIjoiYWNtZS5jb20iLCJzdWIiOiIyOWFjMGMxOC0wYjRhLTQyY2YtODJmYy0wM2Q1NzAzMThhMWQiLCJhcHBsaWNhdGlvbklkIjoiNzkxMDM3MzQtOTdhYi00ZDFhLWFmMzctZTAwNmQwNWQyOTUyIiwicm9sZXMiOltdfQ.Mp0Pcwsz5VECK11Kf2ZZNF_SMKu5CgBeLN9ZOP04kZo",
  "expires_in" : 3600,
  "token_type" : "Bearer",
  "userId" : "3b6d2f70-4821-4694-ac89-60333c9c4165"
}

Verify Authorization

If you only need to validate registration and User roles, this can be done by inspecting the JWT payload as returned in the access_token property of the response body.

If you require the entire User object to validate authorization, you may need to retrieve the entire User. The User may be retrieved in one of several ways. If you have an API key you can retrieve the User by Id or email, these two values are returned in the JWT payload. The email address is returned in the email identity claim, and the User’s Id is returned in the sub identity claim. You may also retrieve the User without an API key by utilizing the JWT as returned in the access_token property in the response body.

See the Retrieve a User API for examples.

You may also choose to use the Introspect or Userinfo endpoints to validate the access token returned from the Token endpoint and to provide you decoded claims as a JSON object.

Now that you have the user, or retrieved the roles from the JWT, you may review their roles and registration to ensure they have adequate authority for the intended action, and if the user is not yet registered for the requested application, you can either fail their login, or complete a registration workflow. Once you have determined a user can be logged into your application, you’ll need to log them into your application. For a web based application, this generally will include creating an HTTP session and storing the user in the newly created session.

Log Out

To log the user out, a typical workflow would include first logging out of your application, if that is successful, you would then log the user out of FusionAuth. This is accomplished by making a GET request to the /oauth2/logout endpoint. The logout request will complete with a 302 redirect to the configured logout URL.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Response

GET /oauth2/logout?
      client_id=06494b74-a796-4723-af44-1bdb96b48875
      &tenantId=78dda1c8-14d4-4c98-be75-0ccef244297d HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io

Example HTTP Request

HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://www.piedpiper.com

Example Implicit Grant

Warning

The Authorization Code Grant is always preferred over the Implicit Grant due to the inherent security risks of this grant. This grant is provided for compatibility with existing integrations but the use of this grant is not recommended.

When using this grant type the access token will be returned on the URL as a fragment which makes it susceptible to being intercepted. Additionally the client (the browser) does not have a secure way to store the token which makes the token susceptible to theft.

If you are still not convinced, proceed at your own risk and implement this grant type using the following example.

The Implicit Grant is similar to the Authorization grant, instead of exchanging a code for an access token, the token is provided in response to the initial authorization request.

Make the authorization request to the authorization server

Make a GET request to the Authorize endpoint with the client_id and redirect_uri. The response_type will always be token. Below is an example HTTP request.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

GET /oauth2/authorize?
      client_id=3c219e58-ed0e-4b18-ad48-f4f92793ae32
      &response_type=token
      &redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.piedpiper.com%2Fcallback
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io

 

Upon successful authentication, a redirect to the configured redirect_uri will be made with an access_token as one of the redirect parameters. The following is an example HTTP 302 redirect, with line breaks added to improve readability. The redirect from an Implicit Grant will contain parameters after the fragment delimiter, #.

HTTP Redirect Response

HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://piedpiper.com/callback#
           access_token=eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJleHAiOjE0ODUxNDA5ODQsImlhdCI6MTQ4NTEzNzM4NCwiaXNzIjoiYWNtZS5jb20iLCJzdWIiOiIyOWFjMGMxOC0wYjRhLTQyY2YtODJmYy0wM2Q1NzAzMThhMWQiLCJhcHBsaWNhdGlvbklkIjoiNzkxMDM3MzQtOTdhYi00ZDFhLWFmMzctZTAwNmQwNWQyOTUyIiwicm9sZXMiOltdfQ.Mp0Pcwsz5VECK11Kf2ZZNF_SMKu5CgBeLN9ZOP04kZo
           &expires_in=3599
           &locale=fr
           &token_type=Bearer
           &userState=Authenticated

 

Example Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant

Note

The Authorization Code Grant is nearly always preferred over the Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant. This grant is provided for compatibility with existing integrations but the use of this grant is not recommended.

The use of this grant removes the delegation pattern intended in the OAuth 2 framework. This means that you no longer will be delegating to FusionAuth to collect user credentials, instead you will be collecting the credentials and passing them to FusionAuth.

The Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant, also referred to as the Password Grant allows you to obtain an access token by directly providing the user credentials to the Token endpoint. This grant may also be used to receive a refresh token by specifying the offline_access scope.

Exchange the user credentials for an access token

Once you have collected the user’s email and password you will make a POST request to the Token endpoint. Below is an example HTTP request where the user’s email is richard@piedpiper.com and password is disrupt. The grant_type will always be password.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

POST /oauth2/token HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 436
client_id=3c219e58-ed0e-4b18-ad48-f4f92793ae32
    &grant_type=password
    &username=richard%40piedpiper.com
    &password=disrupt
    &scope=offline_access

Example HTTP Response

{
  "access_token" : "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJleHAiOjE0ODUxNDA5ODQsImlhdCI6MTQ4NTEzNzM4NCwiaXNzIjoiYWNtZS5jb20iLCJzdWIiOiIyOWFjMGMxOC0wYjRhLTQyY2YtODJmYy0wM2Q1NzAzMThhMWQiLCJhcHBsaWNhdGlvbklkIjoiNzkxMDM3MzQtOTdhYi00ZDFhLWFmMzctZTAwNmQwNWQyOTUyIiwicm9sZXMiOltdfQ.Mp0Pcwsz5VECK11Kf2ZZNF_SMKu5CgBeLN9ZOP04kZo",
  "expires_in" : 3600,
  "refresh_token": "Nu00yJrGw0qlBJNUz2S6LJ3KZFN7uw6Dj4C2mnzF4I6wkM5xingxuw",
  "token_type" : "Bearer",
  "userId" : "3b6d2f70-4821-4694-ac89-60333c9c4165"
}

Example Refresh Token Grant

An access token is designed to have a short time-to-live (TTL). A related refresh token with a longer TTL can be used for generating new access tokens and extending a user’s session. The application’s OAuth settings must be configured with “Generate refresh tokens” enabled, and “Refresh Token” as an “Enabled grant”.

Exchange a refresh token for an access token

With a refresh token obtained from a previous call to the /Authorize endpoint, a new access token may be generated with a POST request to the Token endpoint. Below is an example HTTP request, the grant_type will always be refresh_token.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

POST /oauth2/token HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 436
client_id=3c219e58-ed0e-4b18-ad48-f4f92793ae32
    &grant_type=refresh_token
    &refresh_token=Nu00yJrGw0qlBJNUz2S6LJ3KZFN7uw6Dj4C2mnzF4I6wkM5xingxuw

Example HTTP Response

{
  "access_token": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCIsImtpZCI6ImVjZWUzMTYyZjAifQ.eyJhdWQiOiI4YmY4YWIwYy1iMWNlLTQ0NjUtYmQzNy1jMTU1MThjYWU2YmQiLCJleHAiOjE1NzA0ODQwNTcsImlhdCI6MTU3MDQ4MDQ1NywiaXNzIjoiYWNtZS5jb20iLCJzdWIiOiJhZjRiMzk2Yy01MGM4LTQwNzQtOTA5YS0zYzgwNjU0OTEzMzUiLCJhdXRoZW50aWNhdGlvblR5cGUiOiJSRUZSRVNIX1RPS0VOIiwiZW1haWwiOiJqb2huQGRvZS5pbyIsImVtYWlsX3ZlcmlmaWVkIjp0cnVlLCJwcmVmZXJyZWRfdXNlcm5hbWUiOiJqb2hubnkxMjMiLCJyb2xlcyI6WyJjb21tdW5pdHlfaGVscGVyIiwidXNlciJdLCJhcHBsaWNhdGlvbklkIjoiOGJmOGFiMGMtYjFjZS00NDY1LWJkMzctYzE1NTE4Y2FlNmJkIn0.laSlkKQMOwZmfI_3NT3-1F_VdpLL-ceCQZ2fRL1lvF4",
  "expires_in": 3600,
  "scope": "offline_access",
  "token_type": "Bearer",
  "userId": "3b6d2f70-4821-4694-ac89-60333c9c4165"
}

Example Client Credentials Grant

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This feature is only available in paid plans. Please visit our pricing page to learn more.

Most OAuth grants are designed to allow users to delegate permissions.

The Client Credentials grant allows entities to authenticate and receive access tokens with no user interaction.

Therefore, unlike other grants, the Client Credentials grant isn’t configured in an Application. Instead, it occurs between two Entities. Learn more about setting up Entities.

Here’s a short video showing one possible usage of this grant.

Exchange credentials for an access token

An access token may be generated with a POST request to the Token endpoint. Below is an example HTTP request, the grant_type will always be client_credentials.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

POST /oauth2/token HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io
Authorization: Basic MDkyZGJkZWQtMzBhZi00MTQ5LTljNjEtYjU3OGYyYzcyZjU5OitmY1hldDlJdTJrUWk2MXlXRDlUdTRSZVoxMTNQNnlFQWtyMzJ2NldLT1E9
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 436

grant_type=client_credentials
    &scope=target-entity%3Ae13365f1-a270-493e-bd1b-3d239d753d53%3Aread
{
  "access_token": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCIsImtpZCI6IjM0ZjE3ZDdiNzIifQ.eyJhdWQiOiJlMTMzNjVmMS1hMjcwLTQ5M2UtYmQxYi0zZDIzOWQ3NTNkNTMiLCJleHAiOjE2MjAyMzc3MjksImlhdCI6MTYyMDIzNDEyOSwiaXNzIjoiaHR0cHM6Ly9sb2NhbC5mdXNpb25hdXRoLmlvIiwic3ViIjoiMjkzNGY0MWYtZDI3Ny00YTMyLWIwZDUtMTZlNDdkYWQ5NzIxIiwianRpIjoiMGIwMmY1MDktYmNmMy00YjhkLWEzZGItMDNmOThhY2U5ZDlmIiwicGVybWlzc2lvbnMiOnsiZTEzMzY1ZjEtYTI3MC00OTNlLWJkMWItM2QyMzlkNzUzZDUzIjpbInJlYWQiXX19.1BR367JxpWp33HuHEY0_zHuVDmnYrgi7CzzjlIYwtqQ",
  "expires_in": 3599,
  "scope": "target-entity:e13365f1-a270-493e-bd1b-3d239d753d53:read",
  "token_type": "Bearer"
}

Client Credentials Scopes

In order for permissions to be correctly determined, pass a scope parameter. This parameter can have multiple values, space separated. Each value has this format:

target-entity:entity_id:permission

where entity_id is a required entity UUID and permission is an optional, comma separated list of permissions.

You will typically provide a scope specifying a target entity:

target-entity:92dbded-30af-4149-9c61-b578f2c72600

You may provide append a comma separated list of permissions as well:

target-entity:92dbded-30af-4149-9c61-b578f2c72600:read,write

You may combine multiple entities and permissions in the same scope parameter:

target-entity:92dbded-30af-4149-9c61-b578f2c72600:read,write target-entity:119a84d9-06c5-4d1f-a0d4-a60490b70ac5:read

The scope will be checked against previously granted permissions. If all requested permissions have been found, the grant succeeds and an access_token is returned.

If you do not pass scope , you will still get an access_token if the request is authorized. The token will omit the following claims:

  • aud
  • permissions

Permissions associated with the grant from the target entity to the recipient entity will be available in the permissions claim in the token. If specific permissions are requested, the recipient entity must have previously been granted all of those permissions for a successful access request. If specific permissions are requested, only the requested permissions will be in the permissions claim, otherwise all permissions will be available in that claim.

You can see all claims of the token in the Token documentation.

Example Device Authorization Grant

This example contains screenshots of our Device Grant Example which may be a useful code reference during implementation.

Device Authorization Grant Configuration

In order to leverage FusionAuth for the Device Authorization Grant, the Device Grant must be enabled and the Device Verification URL must be set. See the Configure Application OAuth Settings section above.

FusionAuth requires that the Device Verification URL be a page that you control within your application so that a required Tenant Id is provided throughout the grant flow. While you may host your own form on this page, FusionAuth provides a themed OAuth device template that may be redirected to from your application to complete the user-interaction portion of the Device Authorization Grant as a convenience. This template is located at /oauth2/device. With the required request parameters being client_id and tenantId. On submission of the OAuth device template the end-user is prompted to authenticate using the Authorization Grant flow. This will redirect to the configured OAuth redirect_uri per the typical Authorization Grant flow. The Device Authorization Grant will be considered approved when the Authorization Grant code has been exchanged for a token.

Default values are provided for the durations that the device code and user code remain valid, as well as the user code generator settings. These values may be adjusted through the “Advanced” tab of Tenant Configuration.

Initiate the Device Authorization Grant flow

In order to initiate the Device Authorization Grant flow, make a request from the device to the Device Authorize endpoint, which is also discoverable via the OpenID Configuration.

This request may be made with the optional scope field with a value of offline_access if you would like a refresh token provided on the eventual /oauth2/token endpoint return. This request will return a JSON response with values necessary to fulfill the remainder of the grant flow.

OAuth Device Example - Connect

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

POST /oauth2/device_authorize HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 67
client_id=3c219e58-ed0e-4b18-ad48-f4f92793ae32
    &scope=offline_access

Example JSON Response

{
  "device_code": "e6f_lF1rG_yroI0DxeQB5OrLDKU18lrDhFXeQqIKAjg",
  "expires_in": 600,
  "interval": 5,
  "user_code": "SFYNPV",
  "verification_uri": "http://localhost:9011/oauth2/device",
  "verification_uri_complete": "http://localhost:9011/oauth2/device?user_code=SFYNPV"
}

Poll Token endpoint

Upon receiving a response from the Device Authorize endpoint the device may begin polling the Token endpoint with the device_code at the requested interval in seconds returned in the response. Requests to the Token endpoint will return an error stating that authorization is pending, until the end-user approves the request, at which point an access token will be returned.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

POST /oauth2/token HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 166
client_id=3c219e58-ed0e-4b18-ad48-f4f92793ae32
    &device_code=e6f_lF1rG_yroI0DxeQB5OrLDKU18lrDhFXeQqIKAjg
    &grant_type=urn%3Aietf%3Aparams%3Aoauth%3Agrant-type%3Adevice_code

Example pending JSON Error Response

{
  "error": "authorization_pending",
  "error_description": "The authorization request is still pending"
}

Example expired JSON Error Response

{
  "error": "expired_token",
  "error_description": "The device_code has expired, and the device authorization session has concluded."
}

Example invalid JSON Error Response

{
  "error": "invalid_request",
  "error_reason": "invalid_device_code",
  "error_description": "The request has an invalid parameter: device_code"
}

User-interaction

Upon receiving a response from the Device Authorize endpoint the device may display to the end-user the user_code and a prompt to navigate to the verification_uri . The verification_uri_complete is provided as a convenience so that the device may display a QR code used to navigate the end-user to the user-interaction page with a pre-populated user_code in the form.

OAuth Device Example - Display Code

The user should then navigate to the displayed URL, and enter the activation code.

OAuth Device Example - User Interaction

Pass user_code to FusionAuth

Once the user_code has been received from the end-user, it may be validated by making a request to the Device Validate endpoint. This endpoint will return a 200 response code without a JSON body on successful validation.

Upon validating the end-user provided user_code the typical Authorization Grant, Implicit Grant, or Password Grant flows may be followed for authentication. The OAuth endpoints that facilitate these typical OAuth flows take a user_code parameter to facilitate the Device Authorization Grant approval. See the Authorize endpoint and Token endpoint documentation for more information.

OAuth Device Example - Success

Receive access_token

Once the user has provided a valid user_code and successfully authenticated, the request from the device to the Token endpoint will return successfully with an access token.

Line breaks have been added for readability.

Example HTTP Request

POST /oauth2/token HTTP/1.1
Host: piedpiper.fusionauth.io
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 166
client_id=3c219e58-ed0e-4b18-ad48-f4f92793ae32
    &device_code=e6f_lF1rG_yroI0DxeQB5OrLDKU18lrDhFXeQqIKAjg
    &grant_type=urn%3Aietf%3Aparams%3Aoauth%3Agrant-type%3Adevice_code

Example JSON Response

{
  "access_token" : "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJleHAiOjE0ODUxNDA5ODQsImlhdCI6MTQ4NTEzNzM4NCwiaXNzIjoiYWNtZS5jb20iLCJzdWIiOiIyOWFjMGMxOC0wYjRhLTQyY2YtODJmYy0wM2Q1NzAzMThhMWQiLCJhcHBsaWNhdGlvbklkIjoiNzkxMDM3MzQtOTdhYi00ZDFhLWFmMzctZTAwNmQwNWQyOTUyIiwicm9sZXMiOltdfQ.Mp0Pcwsz5VECK11Kf2ZZNF_SMKu5CgBeLN9ZOP04kZo",
  "expires_in" : 3600,
  "id_token" : "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJleHAiOjE0ODUxNDA5ODQsImlhdCI6MTQ4NTEzNzM4NCwiaXNzIjoiYWNtZS5jb20iLCJzdWIiOiIyOWFjMGMxOC0wYjRhLTQyY2YtODJmYy0wM2Q1NzAzMThhMWQiLCJhcHBsaWNhdGlvbklkIjoiNzkxMDM3MzQtOTdhYi00ZDFhLWFmMzctZTAwNmQwNWQyOTUyIiwicm9sZXMiOltdfQ.Mp0Pcwsz5VECK11Kf2ZZNF_SMKu5CgBeLN9ZOP04kZo",
  "refresh_token": "ze9fi6Y9sMSf3yWp3aaO2w7AMav2MFdiMIi2GObrAi-i3248oo0jTQ",
  "token_type" : "Bearer",
  "userId" : "3b6d2f70-4821-4694-ac89-60333c9c4165"
}